The degree and speed at which a drug enters the bloodstream from the small intestine.
An organ or tissue from another individual.
Transplantation from another individual, live or cadaver.
An enzyme produced by liver
(and other) cells; elevated blood levels of this substance may indicate
abnormal function of the liver or other organs.
Low red blood cell count.
A medication that reduces pain by dulling sensation.
A drug that aids in protecting the digestive system and relieves heartburn and digestive discomfort.
A protein produced by the body to eliminate foreign substances, such as bacteria.
A foreign molecule or substance, such as
a transplant, that triggers an immune response. This response may be
the production of antibodies, which, in turn, try to inactivate or
destroy the antigen (transplanted organ).
An x-ray of the arteries taken with the aid of a dye.
A buildup of fats in the lining of the arteries that may interfere with the flow of blood.
A specialized white blood cell responsible for the body's immunity. B cells play a central role in antibody production.
Small organisms (germs) that can cause disease.
A measure of how much of an
administered drug is absorbed into the bloodstream, actually reaching
the intended site of action in the body. For example, medicine is
absorbed from the GI tract, travels through the bloodstream, and reaches
the organ tissues, where it works to fight infection, prevent
The removal and examination of tissue for diagnosis.
The part of the urinary tract that receives urine from the kidneys and stores it until urination.
Blood Urea Nitrogen
A byproduct of protein breakdown in the body.
BUN stands for blood urea nitrogen, a waste
product normally excreted by the kidney. Your BUN value represents how
well the kidneys function.
An individual who has recently
died of causes that do not affect the function of an organ to be
transplanted. Either the person or the person's family has generously
offered organs and/or tissues for transplantation.
An immunosuppressive drug used with
other immunosuppressants to prevent the rejection of the transplanted
organ. Also known by its chemical name, myophenolate mofetil.
Extended periods of blood glucose levels above normal range.
A category of immunosuppressive medications that includes prednisone and prednislone.
A substance found in blood and urine;
it results from normal body chemical reactions; high blood creatinine
levels are a sign of depressed kidney function.
A test in which donor and recipient
blood samples are mixed together. A "positive" crossmatch shows the
donor and recipient are incompatible. A "negative" crossmatch shows
there is no reaction between the donor and the recipient. This means
that the donor and recipient are compatible and the transplant may
The immunosuppressive ingredient in
Neoral® (cyclosporine capsules and oral solution for microemulsion) and
Sandimmune® (cyclosporine), an earlier form of cyclosporine. Neoral®
and Sandimmune are not bioequivalent and cannot be used interchangeably
without physician supervision.
A virus infection that is
very common in transplant recipients; it can affect the lungs and other
organs as well; a member of the family of herpes viruses.
To change a harmful substance into a safer form.
condition in which an insufficient amount of insulin is produced by the
pancreas, resulting in high levels of glucose in the blood.
In nephropathy, microscopic damage to the kidneys; most often the result of chronic hyperglycemia.
The process of cleansing and achieving
chemical balance in the blood of patients whose kidneys have failed.
Dialysis may refer to hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis (PD).
Improper or unbalanced metabolic process.
Excess fluid in body tissues; swelling of the ankles, for example, is a sign of edema.
Generally refers to the dissolved form of a mineral such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, chlorine, etc.
A protein made in the body and capable of changing a substance from one form to another.
Both terms denote blood glucose levels in the consistently normal range.
Exogenous Insulin Administration
Insulin dosage by injection.
A physician who specializes in the care of the digestive tract.
A serious kidney inflammation, which may seriously impair kidney function; extreme cases require dialysis or transplant.
A type of sugar found in the blood.
An organ or tissue that is transplanted.
When a transplanted tissue or
organ is accepted by the body and functions properly. The potential for
graft survival is increased when the recipient and donor are closely
matched, and when immunosuppressive therapy is used.
Helper T Cell
The specialized white blood cell that tells other parts of the immune system to combat infection or foreign material.
A measure of the red-blood-cell content of blood.
A method of dialysis in which blood
is purified by circulating through an apparatus outside the body
(sometimes called an "artificial kidney”).
An excessive increase in hair growth -
especially male-pattern hair growth in a female. Hirsutism is a common
side effect of corticosteroids and can also occur with cyclosporine
therapy, but is easily treated with depilatory creams or other methods
of hair removal.
The examination of human
leukocyte antigens (HLA) in a patient, often referred to as "tissue
typing" or "genetic matching". Tissue typing is routinely performed for
all donors and recipients in kidney and pancreas transplantation to help
match the donor with the most suitable recipients. This helps to
decrease the likelihood of "rejecting" the transplanted organ.
HLA (human leukocyte antigens) system
Genetically determined series of antigens that are present on human white blood cells (leukocytes) and tissues
High blood pressure.
Any defensive reaction to foreign material by the immune system.
The system that protects the body from invasion by foreign substances, such as bacteria and viruses, and from cancer cells.
A condition of being able to resist a particular infectious disease.
Prevention or suppression of
immune response. Transplant patients receive immunosuppressive drugs in
order to prevent rejection.
Medications given to prevent rejection of a transplanted organ.
An immunosuppressive drug used with other
immunosuppressive drugs to help prevent the rejection of a transplanted
organ. Also known by its chemical name, azathioprine.
No likeness or similarity between donor or recipient blood type or organs.
Indiana Organ Procurement Organization (IOPO)
serves as the integral link between the potential donor and recipient
and is accountable for the retrieval, preservation and transportation of
organs for transplantation. IOPO is an UNOS members as are all Organ
IV or Intravenous
Refers to giving medicines or fluids directly through a vein.
A small needle with a hollow tube inserted into a vein and used to give medicines or fluids.
The compatibility between recipient and donor.
A suspension or mixture of tiny
droplets of one liquid in a second liquid, such as the smooth mixture
that is formed when Neoral® (cyclosporine capsules and oral solution for
microemulsion) combines with fluids in the digestive system.
A type of white blood cell.
Failure to follow the instructions
of one's health care providers, such as not taking medicine as
prescribed or not showing up for clinic visits.
Between organ procurement and
transplant, organs require special methods of preservation to keep them
viable. The length of time that organs and tissues can be kept outside
the body varies, depending on the organ, the preservation fluid and the
An attempt by the immune system to reject or destroy what it recognizes to be a "foreign" presence.
Pancreas After Kidney Transplant (PAK)
A pancreas transplant that is done some time after the kidney transplant.
Pancreas Transplant Alone (PTA)
When a pancreas transplant is done without a kidney transplant.
Panel Reactive Antibody (PRA)
A way of measuring immune system activity within the body. PRA is higher when more antibodies are being made.
Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP)
A type of pneumonia seen primarily in patients whose immune systems are suppressed.
A method of purifying the blood by flushing the abdominal cavity with a dilute salt solution.
A small blood cell needed for normal blood clotting.
A mineral essential for body function.
A manufactured steroid hormone taken
by most transplant recipients to help prevent rejections medication that
helps prevent disease.
Rapamycin belongs to a
group of medicines known as immunosuppressive agents. It is used to
lower the body's natural immunity in patients who receive kidney
transplants. When a patient receives an organ transplant, the body's
white blood cells will try to get rid of (reject) the transplanted
organ. Rapamycin works by preventing the white blood cells from getting
rid of the transplanted organ.
An immune response against grafted tissue, which, if not successfully treated, results in failure of the graft to survive.
Due to organ rejection or
transplant failure, some patients need another transplant and return to
the waiting list. Reducing the number of retransplants is critical when
examining ways to maximize a limited supply of donor organs.
An earlier formulation
of cyclosporine. An immunosuppressive drug used with other
immunosuppressive drugs, that acts specifically to inhibit helper T
cells, thereby helping prevent the rejection of a transplanted organ.
Sandimmune and Neoral are not bioequivalent and cannot be used
interchangeably without physician supervision.
Being immunized, or able to mount an immune response, against an antigen by previous exposure to that antigen.
Simultaneous Pancreas and Kidney Transplant (SPK)
A transplant procedure where both a kidney and the pancreas are transplanted at the same time.
A component of table salt (sodium chloride); an electrolyte that is the main salt in blood.
Indicates the degree of medical urgency for patients awaiting transplants.
Stricture or Stenosis
A narrowing of passage in the body.
Survival rates indicate how many
patients or grafts (transplanted organs) are alive/functioning at a set
time post-transplant. Survival rates are often given at one, three and
five years. Policy modifications are never made without examining their
impact on transplant survival rates. Survival rates improve with
technological and scientific advances. Developing policies that reflect
and respond to these advances in transplantation will also improve
The top of the two blood pressure
numbers, which measures the maximum blood pressure reached as blood is
pumped out of the heart chambers.
A form of fat that the body makes from sugar, alcohol, and excess calories.
A white blood cell responsible for the
body's immunity. T cells can destroy cells infected by viruses, graft
cells, and other altered cells.
A blood test (performed prior to
transplantation) to evaluate the closeness of tissue match between
donor's organ and recipient's HLA antigens.
Type 1 Diabetes
An autoimmune disease in which
the body does not produce any insulin to control an individual's blood
sugar, most often occurring in children and young adults. People with
type I diabetes must take daily insulin injections to stay alive.
Type 2 Diabetes
A metabolic disorder resulting
from the body's inability to properly use insulin. It often can be
controlled with diet, exercise and oral medication or injection of extra
insulin. It is the most common form of the disease.
A probe that uses high-frequency sound
waves that pass into the body, are reflected back, to build an image of
one's internal organs that is shown on a monitor.
Uremia is the end result of kidney failure--the buildup of unexcreted toxins in the blood.
A very small agent (germ) that causes infection.
After evaluation by the transplant
physician, a patient is added to the national waiting list by the
transplant center. Lists are specific to both geographic area and organ
type: heart, lung, kidney, liver, pancreas, intestine, heart-lung,
kidney-pancreas. Each time a donor organ becomes available, the UNOS
computer generates a list of potential recipients based on factors that
include genetic similarity, organ size, medical urgency and time on the
waiting list. Through this process, a "new" list is generated each time
an organ becomes available.
White Blood Cells
Cells in the blood that fight infection; part of the immune system.