Each time you visit your physician, you make decisions regarding your personal health care. You tell your doctor (generally referred to as a “physician”) about your medical problems. Your physician makes a diagnosis and informs you about available medical treatment. You then decide what treatment to accept. That process works until you are unable to decide what treatments to accept or become unable to communicate your decisions. Diseases common to aging such as dementia or Alzheimer’s disease may take away your ability to decide and communicate your health care wishes. Even young people can have strokes or accidents that may keep them from making their own health care decisions. Advance directives are a way to manage your future health care when you cannot speak for yourself.
“Advance directive” is a term that refers to your spoken and written instructions about your future medical care and treatment. By stating your health care choices in an advance directive, you help your family and physician understand your wishes about your medical care. Indiana law pays special attention to advance directives.
Advance directives are normally one or more documents that list your health care instructions. An advance directive may name a person of your choice to make health care choices for you when you cannot make the choices for yourself. If you want, you may use an advance directive to prevent certain people from making health care decisions on your behalf.
Your advance directives will not take away your right to decide your current health care. As long as you are able to decide and express your own decisions, your advance directives will not be used. This is true even under the most serious medical conditions. Your advance directive will only be used when you are unable to communicate or when your physician decides that you no longer have the mental competence to make your own choices.
Advance directives are not required. Your physician or hospital cannot require you to make an advance directive if you do not want one. No one may discriminate against you if you do not sign one. Physicians and hospitals often encourage patients to complete advance directive documents. The purpose of the advance directive is for your physician to gain information about your health care choices so that your wishes can be followed. While completing an advance directive provides guidance to your physician in the event that you are unable to communicate for yourself, you are not required to have an advance directive.
If you do not have an advance directive and are unable to choose medical care or treatment, Indiana law decides who can do this for you. Indiana Code § 16-36 allows any member of your immediate family (meaning your spouse, parent, adult child, brother, or sister) or a person appointed by a court to make the choice for you. If you cannot communicate and do not have an advance directive, your physician will try to contact a member of your immediate family. Your health care choices will be made by the family member that your physician is able to contact.
One of the most important things to do is to talk about your health care wishes with your physician. Your physician can follow your wishes only if he or she knows what your wishes are. You do not have to write down your health care wishes in an advance directive. By discussing your wishes with your physician, your physician will record your choices in your medical chart so that there is a record available for future reference. Your physician will follow your verbal instructions even if you do not complete a written advance directive. Solely discussing your wishes with your physician, however, does not cover all situations. Your physician may not be available when choices need to be made. Other health care providers would not have a copy of the medical records maintained by your physician and therefore would not know about any verbal instructions given by you to your physician. In addition, spoken instructions provide no written evidence and carry less weight than written instructions if there is a disagreement over your care. Writing down your health care choices in an advance directive document makes your wishes clear and may be necessary to fulfill legal requirements.
If you have written advance directives, it is important that you give a copy to your physician. He or she will keep it in your medical chart. If you are admitted to a hospital or health facility, your physician will write orders in your medical chart based on your written advance directives or your spoken instructions. For instance, if you have a fatal disease and do not want cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), your physician will need to write a “do not resuscitate” (DNR) order in your chart. The order makes the hospital staff aware of your wishes. Because most people have several health care providers, you should discuss your wishes with all of your providers and give each provider a copy of your advance directives.
It is difficult to talk with family about dying or being unable to communicate. However, it is important to talk with your family about your wishes and ask them to follow your wishes. You do not always know when or where an illness or accident will occur. It is likely that your family would be the first ones called in an emergency. They are the best source of providing advance directives to a health care provider.
Increasing the quality of life for another person is the ultimate gift. Donating your organs is a way to help others. Making your wishes concerning organ donation clear to your physician and family is an important first step. This lets them know that you wish to be an organ donor. Organ donation is controlled by the Indiana Uniform Anatomical Gift Act found at Indiana Code § 29-2-16. A person that wants to donate organs may include their choice in their will, living will, on a card, or other document. If you do not have a written document for organ donation, someone else will make the choice for you. A common method used to show that you are an organ donor is making the choice on your driver’s license. When you get a new or renewed license, you can ask the license branch to mark your license showing you are an organ donor.
A “health care representative” is a person you choose to receive health care information and make health care decisions for you when you cannot. To choose a health care representative, you must fill out an appointment of health care representative document that names the person you choose to act for you. Your health care representative may agree to or refuse medical care and treatments when you are unable to do so. Your representative will make these choices based on your advance directive. If you want, in certain cases and in consultation with your physician, your health care representative may decide if food, water, or respiration should be given artificially as part of your medical treatment.
Choosing a health care representative is part of the Indiana Health Care Consent Act, found at Indiana Code § 16-36-1. The advance directive naming a health care representative must be in writing, signed by you, and witnessed by another adult. Because these are serious decisions, your health care representative must make them in your best interest. Indiana courts have made it clear that decisions made for you by your health care representative should be honored.
A “living will” is a written document that puts into words your wishes in the event that you become terminally ill and unable to communicate. A living will is an advance directive that lists the specific care or treatment you want or do not want during a terminal illness. A living will often includes directions for CPR, artificial nutrition, maintenance on a respirator, and blood transfusions. The Indiana Living Will Act is found at Indiana Code § 16-36-4. This law allows you to write one of two kinds of advance directive.
Living Will Declaration: This document is used to tell your physician and family that life-prolonging treatments should not be used so that you are allowed to die naturally. Your living will does not have to prohibit all life-prolonging treatments. Your living will should list your specific choices. For example, your living will may state that you do not want to be placed on a respirator but that you want a feeding tube for nutrition. You may even specify that someone else should make the decision for you.
Life-Prolonging Procedures Declaration: This document is the opposite of a living will. You can use this document if you want all life-prolonging medical treatments used to extend your life.
Both of these documents can be canceled orally, in writing, or by destroying the declaration yourself. The cancellation takes effect only when you tell your physician. For either of these documents to be used, there must be two adult witnesses and the document must be in writing and signed by you or someone that has permission to sign your name in your presence.
Any person may make a psychiatric advance directive if he/she has legal capacity. This written document expresses your preferences and consent to treatment measures for a specific diagnosis. The directive sets forth the care and treatment of a mental illness during periods of incapacity. This directive requires certain items in order for the directive to be valid. Indiana Code § 16-36-1.7 provides the requirements for this type of advance directive.
In a hospital or health facility setting, if you have a terminal condition and you do not want CPR, your physician will write a “do not resuscitate” order in your medical chart. If you are home when an emergency occurs, there is no medical chart or physician’s order. For situations outside of a hospital or health facility, the “Out of Hospital Do Not Resuscitate Declaration and Order” is used to state your wishes. The Out of Hospital Do Not Resuscitate Declaration and Order is found at Indiana Code § 16-36-5. The law allows a qualified person to say they do not want CPR given if the heart or lungs stop working in a location that is not a hospital or a health facility. This declaration may override other advance directives. The declaration may be canceled by you at any time by a signed and dated writing, by destroying or canceling the document, or by communicating to health care providers at the scene the desire to cancel the order. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) may have procedures in place for marking your home so they know you have an order. You should contact your local EMS provider to find out their procedures.
A “power of attorney” (also referred to as a “durable power of attorney”) is another kind of advance directive. This document is used to grant another person say-so over your affairs. Your power of attorney document may cover financial matters, give health care authority, or both. By giving this power to another person, you give this person your power of attorney. The legal term for the person you choose is “attorney in fact.” Your attorney in fact does not have to be an attorney. Your attorney in fact can be any adult you trust. Your attorney in fact is given the power to act for you only in the ways that you list in the document. The document must:
The Indiana Powers of Attorney Act is found at Indiana Code § 30-5. Your power of attorney document must be in writing and signed in the presence of a notary public. You can cancel a power of attorney at any time but only by signing a written cancellation and having the cancellation delivered to your attorney in fact.
The choice of advance directives depends on what you are trying to do. The advance directives listed above may be used alone or together. Although an attorney is not required, you may want to talk with one before you sign an advance directive. The laws are complex and it is always wise to talk to an attorney about questions and your legal choices. An attorney is often helpful in advising you on complex family matters and making sure that your documents are correctly done under Indiana law. An attorney may be helpful if you live in more than one state during the year. An attorney can advise you whether advance directives completed in another state are recognized in Indiana.
It is important to discuss your advance directives with your family and health care providers. Your health care wishes cannot be followed unless someone knows your wishes. You may change or cancel your advance directives at any time as long as you are of sound mind. If you change your mind, you need to tell your family, health care representative, power of attorney, and health care providers. You might have to cancel your decision in writing for it to become effective. Always be sure to talk directly with your physician and tell him or her your exact wishes.
Advance directive forms are available from many sources. Most physicians, hospitals, health facilities, or senior citizen groups can provide you with forms or refer you to a source. These groups often have the information on their web sites. You should be aware that forms may not do everything you want done. Forms may need to be changed to meet your needs. Although advance directives do not require an attorney, you may wish to consult with one before you try to write one of the more complex legal documents listed above.
Make sure that your health care representative, immediate family members, physician, attorney, and other health care providers know that you have an advance directive. Be sure to tell them where it is located. You should ask your physician and other health care providers to make your advance directives part of your permanent medical chart. If you have a power of attorney, you should give a copy of your advance directives to your attorney in fact. You may wish to keep a small card in your purse or wallet that states that you have an advance directive, where it is located, and who to contact for your attorney in fact or health care representative, if you have named one.
Indiana State Department of Health 2 North Meridian Street Indianapolis, Indiana 46204http://www.in.gov/isdh